Marco, who took after his outgoing and adventurous father, embraced the newness he discovered along his journey, related to people as equals, and survived strenuous travels, violence, illness and inclement weather that would have stopped other men in their tracks and sent them packing back home several of their traveling companions did just that, others perished! When you see representations of Marco Polo, none made during his lifetime, you see a sturdy hulk of a man whom today we would say looks like a rugby player, or an adventurer. This physique seems the most likely. Only later, when Marco's story was reprinted and illustrated for a mass audience, was his likeness changed into a romanticized waif.
See Article History Alternative Title: His great work describes his extensive travels covering some 75, mileskm in trips to almost all A biography of marco polo a traveler and author the Muslim countries and as far as China and Sumatra now part of Indonesia.
He received the traditional juristic and literary education in his native town of Tangier. Inat the age of 21, he started his travels by undertaking the pilgrimage hajj to Mecca. At first his purpose was to fulfill that religious duty and to broaden his education by studying under famous scholars in EgyptSyriaand the Hejaz western Arabia.
That he achieved his objectives is corroborated by long enumerations of scholars and Sufi Islamic mystic saints whom he met and also by a list of diplomas conferred on him mainly in Damascus.
Those studies qualified him for judicial office, whereas the claim of being a former pupil of the then-outstanding authorities in traditional Islamic sciences greatly enhanced his chances and made him thereafter a respected guest at many courts.
That renown was to follow later, however.
He made a living of it, benefitting at the beginning from his scholarly status and later from his increasing fame as a traveler.
He enjoyed the generosity and benevolence of numerous sultans, rulers, governors, and high dignitaries in the countries he visited, thus securing an income that enabled him to continue his wanderings. Having finished the pilgrimage inhe crossed the Arabian Desert to Iraqsouthern IranAzerbaijanand Baghdad.
Embarking on a boat in Jiddahhe sailed with a retinue of followers down both shores of the Red Sea to Yemencrossed it by land, and set sail again from Aden.
This time he navigated along the eastern African coast, visiting the trading city-states as far as Kilwa Tanzania.
There a new, ambitious plan matured in his mind. Thus, his narrative provides a valuable source for the history of that country between the end of the Seljuq power and the rise of the house of Ottoman.
According to his narrative, he undertook an excursion from Saray to Bulgary on the upper Volga and Kamabut there are reasons to doubt his veracity on that point.
Nevertheless, he always felt happier in the realm of Islam than in non-Muslim lands, whether Christian, Hindu, or pagan. After his return from Constantinople through the Russian steppes, he continued his journey in the general direction of India.
From Saray he traveled with a caravan to Central Asiavisiting the ancient towns of BukharaSamarkandand Balkhall of those still showing the scars left by the Mongol invasion.
The accuracy of that date is doubtful, as it would have been impossible to cover such enormous distances from Mecca in the course of only one year.
Because of that discrepancy, his subsequent dating until is highly uncertain. Though he had apparently attained an easy life, it soon became clear that his new position was not without danger.
He left Delhi without regrets, but his journey was full of other dangers: On the Malabar Coast of southwestern India he became involved in local wars and was finally shipwrecked near Calicut now Kozhikodelosing all his property and the gifts for the Chinese emperor.
After a new shipwreck on the Coromandel Coast of southeastern India, he took part in a war led by his brother-in-law and went again to the Maldives and then to Bengal and Assam. At that time he decided to resume his mission to China and sailed for Sumatra. There he was given a new ship by the Muslim sultan and started for China; his description of his itinerary contains some discrepancies.
That part of his narrative is rather brief, and the itinerary, as well as the chronology, presents many problems and difficulties, not yet surmounted, that cast shadows of doubt on his veracity.
In Syria he witnessed the ravages of the Black Death ofvisited again many towns there and in Egypt, and in the same year performed his final pilgrimage to Mecca. But there still remained two Muslim countries not yet known to him.
Shortly after his return he went to the kingdom of Granadathe last remnant of Moorish Spainand two years later in he set out on a journey to the western Sudan.
His last journey across the Sahara to Western Africa was taken unwillingly at the command of the sultan. After that he passes from sight.
He is reported to have held the office of qadi in a town in Morocco before his death, details of which remain uncertain.
He visited, with few exceptions central Persia, Armenia, and Georgiaall Muslim countries, as well as many adjacent non-Muslim lands. While he did not discover new or unknown lands, and his contribution to scientific geography was minimal, the documentary value of his work has given it lasting historical and geographical significance.
He met at least 60 rulers and a much greater number of viziers, governors, and other dignitaries; in his book he mentioned more than 2, persons who were known to him personally or whose tombs he visited.
His accounts of his travels in Asia Minor, East and West Africathe Maldives, and India form a major source for the histories of those areas, whereas the parts dealing with the Arab and Persian Middle East are valuable for their wealth of detail on various aspects of social and cultural life.
A few grave and several minor discrepancies in the chronology of his travels are due more to lapses in his memory than to intentional fabrication. A number of formerly uncertain points such as travels in Asia Minor and the visit to Constantinople have since been cleared away by contemporary research and the discovery of new corroborative sources.
He was deeply rooted in orthodox Islam but, like many of his contemporaries, oscillated between the pursuit of its legislative formalism and an adherence to the mystic path and succeeded in combining both. He did not offer any profound philosophy but accepted life as it came to him, leaving to posterity a true picture of himself and his times.Albarel map of North America.
For the detailed analysis of what is the only forgery, so far identified, made up from elements of different originals, see the detailed analysis by John Woram. Raabe, Heinrich August, ¶. Die Postgeheimnisse oder die hauptsächlichsten Regeln welche man beim Reisen und bei Versendungen mit der Post beobachten muß um Verdruß und Verlust zu vermeiden (German) (as Author); Raabe, Wilhelm, ¶.
National Geographic Adventure, in their July-August, , issue unveiled an exceptionally well conceived list of "adventure" grupobittia.com process they followed in compiling the list was conducted in three-parts.
First they solicited ideas from their editorial staff, readers and contributors. A chronological listing of all known literary and theatrical productions inspired by Rush, as well as all known occurences of Rush references in pop culture excluding references made during talkshows, gameshows, sporting events, news programs, etc., as they are too numerous to list.
A chronological listing of all known literary and theatrical productions inspired by Rush, as well as all known occurences of Rush references in pop culture excluding references made during talkshows, gameshows, sporting events, news programs, etc., as they are too numerous to list.
The Travels of Marco Polo [Marco Polo, Peter Harris, William Marsden, Colin Thubron] on grupobittia.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Now in a handsome and newly revised hardcover edition: the extraordinary travelogue that has enthralled readers for more than seven centuries.
Marco Polo’s vivid descriptions of the splendid cities and people he encountered on his journey along the Silk.