Summary of Statement No. For most other governmental entities, it establishes fair value standards for investments in a participating interest-earning investment contracts, b external investment pools, c open-end mutual funds, d debt securities, and e equity securities, option contracts, stock warrants, and stock rights that have readily determinable fair values. Participating investment contracts are investments whose value is affected by market interest rate changes. They participate because they are negotiable or transferable, or their redemption value considers market rates.
Economic understanding[ edit ] Vs market price[ edit ] There are two schools of thought about the relation between the market price and fair value in any form of market, but especially with regard to tradable assets: The efficient-market hypothesis asserts that, in a well organized, reasonably transparent market, the market price is generally equal to or close to the fair value, as investors react quickly to incorporate new information about relative scarcity, utility, or potential returns in Fair value measurement bids; see also Rational pricing.
Behavioral finance asserts that the market price often diverges from fair value because of various, common cognitive biases among buyers or sellers.
However, even proponents of behavioral finance generally acknowledge that behavioral anomalies that may cause such a divergence often do so in ways that are unpredictable, chaotic, or otherwise difficult to capture in a sustainable profitable trading strategy, especially when accounting for transaction costs.
Vs market value[ edit ] The latest edition of International Valuation Standards IVSclearly distinguishes between fair value now referred to as "equitable value"as defined in the IVS, and market valueas defined in the IVS: So as the term is generally used, Fair Value can be clearly distinguished from Market Value.
It requires the assessment of the price that is fair between two specific parties taking into account the respective advantages or disadvantages that each will gain from the transaction. Although Market Value may meet these criteria, this is not necessarily always the case.
Fair Value is frequently used when undertaking due diligence in corporate transactions, where particular synergies between the two parties may mean that the price that is fair between them is higher than the price that might be obtainable on the wider market.
In other words Special Value may be generated.
Market Value requires this element of Special Value to be disregarded, but it forms part of the assessment of Fair Value. Under US GAAP FASfair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
This is used for assets whose carrying value is based on mark-to-market valuations; for assets carried at historical costthe fair value of the asset is not used. If the owners wanted to put a fair value measurement on the kitchen it would be a subjective estimate because there is no active market for such items or items similar to this one.
This problem is compounded when numerous assets and liabilities are reported at historical cost, leading to a balance sheet that may be greatly undervalued. The fair-value balance sheet provides information for investors who are interested in the current value of assets and liabilities, not the historical cost.
Fair Value Measurements " FAS " in September to provide guidance about how entities should determine fair value estimations for financial reporting purposes.
FAS broadly applies to financial and nonfinancial assets and liabilities measured at fair value under other authoritative accounting pronouncements. However, application to nonfinancial assets and liabilities was deferred until Absence of one single consistent framework for applying fair value measurements and developing a reliable estimate of a fair value in the absence of quoted prices has created inconsistencies and incomparability.
The goal of this framework is to eliminate the inconsistencies between balance sheet historical cost numbers and income statement fair value numbers.
In the futures market, fair value is the equilibrium price for a futures contract. This is equal to the spot price after taking into account compounded interest and dividends lost because the investor owns the futures contract rather than the physical stocks over a certain period of time.
On the other side of the balance sheet the fair value of a liability is the amount at which that liability could be incurred or settled in a current transaction.1 November Fair value measurement Introduction Many IFRS permit or require entities to measure or disclose the fair value of assets, liabilities, or equity instruments.
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(July ). Unless otherwise specified, pronouncements of the GASB apply to financial reports of all state and local governmental entities, including general purpose governments, public benefit corporations and authorities, public employee retirement systems, utilities, hospitals and other healthcare providers, and colleges and universities.
Defining "fair value" Paragraph 5 of SFAS No. (now known as ASC in the updated FASB Codification) defines fair value as “the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.”.
Update —Fair Value Measurement (Topic ): Disclosures for Investments in Certain Entities That Calculate Net Asset Value per Share (or Its Equivalent) (a consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force).